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Technical vacuum

Description

Technical vacuum - state of the gas at low pressure, highly rarefied gas. Technical vacuum has thermodynamic definition: a vacuum is considered a state with the pressure at which the mean free path of atoms or molecules is greater than the size of the tank.

Strictly speaking, the technical vacuum called in the vessel or gas pipeline pressure is lower than in the surrounding atmosphere.

Vacuum quality

Torr

Pa

Atmosphere

Atmospheric pressure

760

1.013×10+5

1

Low vacuum

760 to 25

1×10+5 to 3×10+3

1 to 0.03

Medium vacuum

25 to 1×10−3

3×10+3 to 1×10−1

High vacuum

1×10−3 to 1×10−9

1×10−1 to 1×10−7

Ultra high vacuum

1×10−9 to 1×10−12

1×10−7 to 1×10−10

Extremely high vacuum

<1×10−12

<1×10−10

Outer space

1×10−6 to <3×10−17

1×10−4 to < 3×10−15

Perfect vacuum

0

0

0

Application:

Vacuum is useful in a variety of processes and devices. Its first widespread use was in the incandescent light bulb to protect the filament from chemical degradation. The chemical inertness produced by a vacuum is also useful for electron beam welding, cold welding, vacuum packing and vacuum frying. Ultra-high vacuum is used in the study of atomically clean substrates, as only a very good vacuum preserves atomic-scale clean surfaces for a reasonably long time (on the order of minutes to days). High to ultra-high vacuum removes the obstruction of air, allowing particle beams to deposit or remove materials without contamination. This is the principle behind chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and dry etching which are essential to the fabrication of semiconductors and optical coatings, and to surface science. The reduction of convection provides the thermal insulation of thermos bottles. Deep vacuum lowers the boiling point of liquids and promotes low temperature outgassing which is used in freeze drying, adhesive preparation, distillation, metallurgy, and process purging. The electrical properties of vacuum make electron microscopes and vacuum tubes possible, including cathode ray tubes. The elimination of air friction is useful for flywheel energy storage and ultracentrifuges.

Physics
Chemical industry

Instrument

Metallurgy

Engineering

Food industry

Space industry

Building

Our equipment

Company WestMedGroup offers qualified design, installation and construction of the gas distribution systems of technical vacuum by MIL'S.

Central vacuum station for medical use, vacuum pumps, vacuum systems for laboratories.